Dutch Zion Besieged and Breached: Orange City, 1914-1918


My concern in this paper is with how the Dutch-Americans of Orange City and vicinity, especially the churches, responded to Harding's challenge and to the war in general. How loyal were they to "the Stars and Stripes" and to the Allied cause? How patriotic - or unpatriotic - were they? How Americanized were they? How did the war affect them? My observations are based largely upon research done in the local weekly (Republican, Christian) newspaper, De Volksvriend, the Orange City Reformed and Christian Reformed consistory minutes, and several other sources.